Understanding CTs in Africa: A basic typology

Middle-income and low-income CTs

General characteristics of Middle-income and Low-income/fragile cash transfers: A basic typology

Middle-income CTs Low-income/Fragile state CTs
Program Start Date Prior to 2000 (many colonial era) 2000 and later
Duration of Program Long-term Short-term
Objectives Poverty-focused Focused on food security, human capital, emergency response
Approach to Social Protection Ex ante prevention and promotion Ex post protection
Coverage Widescale coverage of vulnerable/poor population Limited coverage of select vulnerable groups
Targeting Universal or near-universal coverage of eligible group Limited target group
Use of Communities Limited Often involved in targeting, monitoring, payment distribution
Conditions No Sometimes
Institutional Base Government Outside of Government
Legal Support and Enabling Legislation Yes; rights-based programs Still incipient
Monitoring Systems Established; appeals mechanisms in place Quality is varied and sometimes very weak
Funders Government Donor or government plus donor
Complementary Programs Usually part of a social assistance system Usually stand-alone

Source: Garcia and Moore (2012)