Africa’s unique use of conditions


Unique aspects of the conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa’s CCTs include the following:

  • Most conditions are based on activities, such as school enrollment or attendance, rather than outcomes, such as school achievement.
    • The tendency for conditions to focus on activities rather than outcomes may reflect the difficulty associated with monitoring conditions in the region. It may also reflect concerns over the burdens conditions place on households or the quality of supply-side services, which may limit final outcomes.
  • Conditions are often applied flexibly.
    • Many CCTs use soft conditions that impose no penalties for noncompliance.
    • Many CCTs apply conditions flexibly, such as only in areas with adequate supply-side infrastructure or in areas that receive additional supply-side investments. In some cases, only certain households are required to abide by conditions.
  • Conditions are often monitored less frequently than in other regions; warnings and partial payment penalties are often applied when beneficiaries do not comply with conditions.
    • This flexibility often reflects concerns about beneficiaries’ ability to fulfill conditions, the capacity of supply-side institutions to handle increased demand, and the CT and involved institutions’ capacity to monitor.